Case Study

Binance’s Guilty Plea and BlockTrace’s Role in its Partnership with IRS:CI


In what was possibly the largest cybercrime case in history, with a substantial impact on the cryptocurrency sector, Binance and its CEO, Changpeng Zhao, recently pleaded guilty to a host of federal charges. These charges included violations of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), conspiracy to conduct an unlicensed money transmitting business, conspiracy to maintain an effective anti-money laundering (AML) program, and violations of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) related to U.S. sanctions statutes and authorities. This case has had a profound impact on the industry, demonstrating the importance of regulatory compliance for digital asset exchanges. “Binance turned a blind eye to its legal obligations in the pursuit of profit. Its willful failures allowed money to flow to terrorists, cybercriminals, and child abusers through its platform.” [source] BlockTrace played a pivotal role in this investigation, supporting federal authorities, particularly the IRS:CI, in uncovering the extent of Binance’s violations.

BlockTrace’s Crucial Role in the Investigation

BlockTrace (BT) was integral to the investigative efforts led by Special Agent Adam Rutkowski with IRS Criminal Investigations. BT’s expertise in blockchain analysis and cybercrime was crucial in unraveling the complex web of Binance’s activities. Here’s a detailed look at BT’s contributions:

  1. Analyzing Blockchain Data: BT conducted in-depth analysis of blockchain data related to Binance, scrutinizing transaction patterns to identify suspicious activities and trace illicit funds. The team at BT utilized advanced blockchain forensics and other custom tools to track the movement of cryptocurrencies through various wallets and exchanges. By analyzing these transaction flows, investigators were able to uncover the intricate networks of illicit transactions, including those related to money laundering and sanctions violations.
  2. Identifying OFAC Sanctions Violations: Investigators and engineers meticulously examined transactions to identify violations of the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctions. This involved tracking transactions with jurisdictions such as Iran, Syria, and other sanctioned regions, which Binance had facilitated, thereby breaching U.S. sanctions laws. Investigators employed sophisticated data analytics techniques to cross-reference transaction data with sanctioned entities, ensuring comprehensive coverage and accuracy in identifying violations.
  3. Data Normalization and Analysis: Investigators and engineers standardized and organized vast amounts of data to ensure consistency and accuracy, which facilitated efficient analysis and reporting. This process involved cleaning and transforming raw data from various sources into a unified format, making it easier to analyze and interpret. BT’s data normalization efforts were critical in identifying patterns and anomalies in Binance’s transaction data, which helped in pinpointing illegal activities.
  4. Methodologies for Data Processing: BT developed specialized methodologies to process data obtained pursuant to official legal actions and investigative efforts. These methods automated the extraction and analysis of relevant information, ensuring thorough examination of Binance’s activities. One of BT’s largest undertakings was developing custom methodologies that decrypted thousands of virtual disk volumes. These methodologies not only decrypted the data but also indexed the contents and automatically captured specific items of interest, placing the relevant information in databases that could be repeatedly queried and analyzed. This allowed BT to efficiently search and analyze large volumes of data to identify key pieces of evidentiary information. This crucial effort enabled the team to process vast amounts of data quickly and accurately.

Supporting IRS:CI Special Agent Adam Rutkowski

BlockTrace worked closely with IRS:CI Special Agent (SA) Adam Rutkowski during the investigation. As the lead Case Agent, SA Rutkowski was instrumental in leading the federal efforts against Binance. His expertise and dedication were crucial to uncovering the extensive violations committed by the exchange. Following his distinguished service with IRS:CI, Adam Rutkowski joined BlockTrace as one of its lead investigators and engineers, bringing his wealth of experience and knowledge to the team. Following the conclusion of the investigation and guilty plea, SA Rutkowski shared the following on his LinkedIn social media account:

“I am very proud to have been the Case Agent on this remarkable case. Kevin Mosley was the lead attorney. Tenacity is the keyword, here. I’m impressed that Kevin’s verbal commitment proved to be undeterred. The team at U.S. Department of Justice MLARS, along with the Western District of Washington USAO, and the National Security Division were imperative to the success of this investigation. We followed the evidence and pursued commensurate charges. In addition to sticktoitiveness, this case required substantial data science and data engineering. I am immensely grateful to BlockTrace for their relentless and long-term support. Shaun MaGruder, Marshall Yale, and the entire team were essential to the success. IRS Criminal Investigation Cybercrimes Headquarters, and the LAFO were unrelenting partners. Our agency employs the nation’s premier financial investigators, as well as the nation’s premier cybercrimes investigators. IRS-CI brought this home. My thanks to my co-agents, as well as the Cyber Support Unit, and our CIS Special Agents. Special thanks goes to my early-on Co-Case Agent, Eric Hergert, Supervisor Michael Lee, the Western Cybercrimes Unit (and honorary members!!). Our agency showed up!! We delivered. Very proud of the job the government has done on this pivotal case.”

Details of Binance’s Guilty Plea

Binance and Changpeng Zhao admitted to several significant violations as part of their plea agreement:

  • Conspiracy to operate as an unlicensed money transmitting business.
  • Conspiracy to fail to maintain and implement an effective anti-money laundering (AML) program, including know-your-customer (KYC) protocols.
  • Violating U.S. sanctions by causing U.S. users to engage in transactions with users in sanctioned jurisdictions in violation of U.S. sanctions [source] [source].

The plea agreement resulted in Binance agreeing to pay over $4 billion in fines and penalties, marking one of the largest financial settlements in the cryptocurrency industry. Changpeng Zhao paid a $50 million fine and stepped down from his role as CEO [source].

The Investigation’s Findings

The investigation revealed that Binance had prioritized growth and profits over compliance with U.S. laws, leading to severe regulatory breaches. Key findings included:

  • Binance’s failure to implement comprehensive KYC protocols, allowing users to trade with minimal identification.
  • The company’s facilitation of transactions with users in sanctioned jurisdictions, including Iran, Syria, and Russian-occupied regions of Ukraine [source] [source].
  • Binance’s deliberate efforts to attract and retain high-volume U.S. customers, despite publicly announcing that it would block U.S. customers [source].

Impact and Implications

The case against Binance underscores the critical importance of regulatory compliance in the cryptocurrency industry. The U.S. Department of Justice emphasized that companies must adhere to financial regulations to prevent illegal activities and protect the integrity of the financial system [source]. This landmark case serves as a warning to other digital asset exchanges about the consequences of non-compliance.

For BlockTrace, its involvement in the investigation demonstrated its capabilities in blockchain analysis, digital evidence analysis, and its commitment to supporting regulatory compliance. BT’s work not only contributed to the successful prosecution of Binance but also reinforced its position as a leader in cybercrime investigation and blockchain forensics.


The guilty plea by Binance and its CEO Changpeng Zhao marks a significant milestone in the enforcement of cryptocurrency regulations. BlockTrace is proud to have played a pivotal role in this landmark case, showcasing its expertise and commitment to supporting federal authorities in maintaining the integrity of the financial system. With the addition of former IRS:CI Special Agent Adam Rutkowski to its team, BlockTrace is well-positioned to continue its mission of combating cybercrime and ensuring compliance within the digital asset industry. As the cryptocurrency sector continues to evolve, BT’s focus remains on providing top-tier investigative support and ensuring the safety and legality of digital asset transactions.


BlockTrace is a specialized investigation company focused on cryptocurrency-related cases, providing software and data engineering services with insights from various blockchains to both public and private sectors.

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BlockTrace is a specialized investigation company focused on cryptocurrency-related cases, providing software and data engineering services with insights from various blockchains to both public and private sectors.


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